Friday, September 8, 2017

IT architecture and the environment

Every cloud and IT architect can make a difference to the environment. We don't need to wait for someone to announce a solar or hydro project. There's a quantifiable cut in energy consumption when you select the correct CPU, design an hot aisle correctly, implement scale groups or virtualise a data centre (an older example, for those who haven't already).

How much power has been saved by VDI/thin clients? We need to improve our communication skills: while a hydro plant/wind farm is noticeable ("looks big, must be good!"), the nature of our work makes it's difficult to communicate the benefits. Your DC went from PUE 1.3 to 1.2? Great! Is that the equivalent of rolling out 10,000 solar panels or turning the kitchen light off?

If we don't appreciate our own capabilities we will become the status quo we despise: expansion for the sake of budget, trading off perceived risk for inefficiency and waiting for someone else to fix our demand-side power inefficiencies with supply-side solar. The good news is that every IT architect can be the change they want to see. The bad news is that not every IT architect knows that.

Thursday, November 24, 2016

Excel formula for calculating stamp duty in Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia (that's where Canberra is)

Excel runs the world. If Microsoft removed nested IFs in Excel, every taxation system would transition to a flat rate overnight. Here's a stamp duty table for properties in Canberra, clearly constructed by someone who loves Excel.

I live one quarter my life in Excel, a quarter in Word, Visio and PowerPoint.

This is taken from the official ACT Revenue Office (that's state revenue, not federal). The Excel formula representing this table is as follows:

If you rely on this formula for critical financial decisions without testing it yourself, you're nuts.

Tuesday, November 22, 2016

Excel formula for calculating stamp duty in Western Australia (WA), Australia (that'd be where Perth is)

If you want to buy property in Western Australia, it's helpful to understand stamp duty liability.

Location of Perth, according to CNN.


This formula replicates the WA Department of Finance stamp duty calculator. It assumes you're an Australian citizen, aren't eligible for concessions, and are purchasing a residential property.


However, the stamp duty calculator rounds to the nearest 100. Hence, a $1000 property will have the same liability as a $1099 property. Here's another formula that calculates liability exactly, as per the WA schedule of rates


Pick whichever one makes your wildest property fantasies come true. I hope it goes without saying that you should test an Excel formula you found on the internet before making actual financial decisions. It is entirely possible for the WA government to change the stamp duty rates 3 seconds after you read this blog post.

Monday, November 21, 2016

Excel formula for calculating stamp duty in Tasmania (TAS), Australia (that'd be where Hobart is)

Here's my Microsoft Excel formula for calculating stamp duty in Tasmania (TAS), Australia.

The output of this formula doesn't match the official Tasmanian State Revenue Office's calculator, because their calculator only "rounds" the input to the nearest $100.

Example: if you enter $100,000 into the official calculator and the Excel formula, they will match. However, if you enter $100,001, the official calculator will say $2438.50 and the Excel formula will say $2435.04. In fact, if you enter any figure between $100,000 and $199,999, their calculator will give the same response. I'm not sure whether the Tasmanian SRO round their inputs to the nearest $100, or whether they follow the letter of the law when calculating liability.

I've created an additional Excel formula which replicates the behaviour of the online calculator.
You're free to pick which one you like. Either way, the maximum margin of error for this formula will be $4.50 (the liability from the highest range). If an inaccuracy of $4.50 bothers you, perhaps you shouldn't be in the property market!

Standard disclaimer applies: do not trust this formula until you have tested it yourself. It makes all sorts of assumptions like you are an Australian citizen and are not entitled to any concessional rates.

Sunday, November 20, 2016

Excel formula for calculating stamp duty in South Australia (SA), Australia (that's where Adelaide is)

Because I'm a completionist, I feel the urge to write Excel formulas to calculate stamp duty for every state in Australia. Here's the formula for South Australia from Revenues SA.



Unlike other states, Revenues SA calcualate liablility to include cents. Hence, no ROUND() in this formula.

If you're trusting an internet stranger's formula without comparing it with the official SA stamp duty calculator, you're nuts. The intent of these formulas is to calculate ballpark stamp duty.

Saturday, November 19, 2016

Excel formula for calculating stamp duty in Northern Territory (NT), Australia (that's where Darwin and Alice Springs are!)

There are 244,300 people in the NT, which is about the population of "Foxconn City" in Shenzhen, China. Darwin has the lowest population density of any capital city (43 people per square kilometer), compared to a Sydney train which can hold up to 4.3 people per square meter.

Here's an Excel formula for calculating stamp duty in NT.

The official calculator rounds to the nearest 5 cents, so I've used MROUND() to achieve the same.

Usual disclaimer applies: these Excel formulas are designed for quick ballpark estimates of property stamp duty pricing. Though they are accurate, you would be wise to confirm important calculations yourself with the official NT stamp duty calculator.

Tuesday, November 15, 2016

Excel formula for calculating stamp duty in Queensland, Australia (that's where Brisbane is)

There used to be a joke that if you wanted to know what Brisbane was like 20 years ago, you should go there now! Having grown up in Brisbane, I can now say that the joke is the cost of housing. Stamp duty makes a bad situation worse: because it isn't indexed to cost of living increases, people are liable for increasing amounts. Here's my Excel formula for calculating stamp duty in QLD if you're one of the shrinking amount of people who can afford a property.


Magic numbers:

  • 1050. This is 1.5% of $70,000. Why $70,000? It's the difference between $70,000 (upper bounds of second dutiable range) and $5,000 (lower bounds of the second dutiable range).
  • 17325. This is $1050 plus 3.5% of $465,000. Why $465,000? It's the difference between $540,000 (upper bounds of third dutiable range) and $75,000 (lower bounds of the third dutiable range).
  • 38025. This is $17,325 plus plus 4.5% of $460,000. Why $460,000? It's the difference between $1,000,000 (upper bounds of fourth dutiable range) and $540,000 (lower bounds of the fourth dutiable range).

Other numbers:
  • 0.015 is 1.5%
  • 0.035 is 3.5%
  • 0.045 is 4.5%
  • 0.0575 is 5.75%

For the mathematical purists, I've also written a long form edition that doesn't contain magic numbers.


  • In the long form, 1050 is expressed as (75000-5000)*0.015
  • In the long form, 17325 is expressed as (75000-5000)*0.015+(540000-75000)*0.035
  • In the long form, 38025 is expressed as (75000-5000)*0.015+(540000-75000)*0.035+(1000000-540000)*0.045
The sauce:

The disclaimer:
  • If you use an internet stranger's Excel formula without rigorous testing against the official Queensland OSR transfer duty calculator, you're awfully trustworthy and I have a tiger repellant rock to sell you.
Homer: Not a bear in sight. The Bear Patrol must be working like a charm.
Lisa: That’s specious reasoning, Dad.
Homer: Thank you, dear.
Lisa: By your logic I could claim that this rock keeps tigers away.
Homer: Oh, how does it work?
Lisa: It doesn’t work.
Homer: Uh-huh. Lisa: It’s just a stupid rock.
Homer: Uh-huh.
Lisa: But I don’t see any tigers around, do you? [Homer thinks of this, then pulls out some money]
Homer: Lisa, I want to buy your rock. [Lisa refuses at first, then takes the exchange]